This report is a summary review on recommended practice, law and policy on hydro meteorological activities in the global context. The World Meteorological Organization, which is the international leader of the development of law and policy on hydrology and meteorology. They provide recommendations and suggest good practices through a manual and a guide for different sectors on water and weather concerns. This report focuses on law and policy on hydro meteorological activities in Vietnam and discusses the general law and policy developed through the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) according to five thematic areas of hydrometeorology cited below.
- Issues related to the systematic management of hydro-meteorological activities, with a focus on the basis of international best practices and upcoming trends in the context of climate change. A unified and systematic state management issues of the hydro-meteorological activities;
- Recommended options and solutions for management of hydro-meteorological forecasts, the roles and responsibilities of the state hydro-meteorological agencies in warning and forecasting natural disaster, and socialization of common weather forecast services provided by different organizations and individuals;
- Regulations on hydro-meteorological technical safety sites to ensure conformity with the social-economic development and sharing of international experiences in hydro-meteorological state management to ensure the technical conditions for the meteorological operations;
- Recommend management of hydro-meteorological data and information sharing in accordance with international common practices and trends;
- Review and analyze organizational systems of forecast and regulation of hydro meteorological data management in national hydro-meteorological agencies and their state management agencies from the central to local levels.
The Ministry of Public Works and Transportation (MPWT) has increasingly focused its attention on extreme climate events and their impacts on Cambodia’s road network. The climate change impacts will be widespread and costly in both human and economic terms, and will require significant changes in the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of transportation systems. Under the ADB-funded “Climate Resilience for Provincial Road Improvement Project” (CR-PRIP), MPWT aims to promote climate adaptation and environmentally friendly roads. The project will ensure the robustness, safety, pass-ability, and durability of roads by setting up design standards, safety measures, and emergency plans.
Conducting regular inventories of road damage is essential to emergency maintenance and identifies potential vulnerabilities in the road sectors. Of all the possible types of spending on the road network, preventive maintenance is the most beneficial. This is because a small amount of money on timely maintenance can preserve the huge initial expenditure that was made at the time of construction. Maintenance expenditure saves money in two ways. Firstly, it reduces the overall costs to the road agency (in this case the MPWT and the Ministry of Rural Development). Secondly, it reduces the costs to the road users. Maintenance is done to keep the vehicle operating cost lower. There will be fewer accidents and the road will reach its design life when properly maintained. It will also have a satisfactory rate of economic return.
Presently road maintenance in Cambodia is divided into three main categories:
- Periodic maintenance: Fix the damage when it occurs
- Routine maintenance: Anticipate the damage and plan ahead to fix it
- Emergency maintenance: Large-scale repairs for significant damage
Historically, the Provincial Public Works Department (DPWT) of MPWT has undertaken road maintenance. The Road Maintenance Department of MPWT carries out the periodic and routine maintenance, and the Road Infrastructure Department under the MPWT is responsible for emergency maintenance and the rehabilitation program in collaboration with the provincial department. Other than DPWT, private enterprise and construction units from the police and armed forces also work together for road maintenance. The Road Maintenance Department was created under a World Bank project in 2005 but has not yet become fully functional or integrated with the proper staff. The regular data collection that is carried out by the department are roughness with visual assessment, deflection survey, and traffic volume.
The department uses the Road Management and Decision Support System (RMDS) to collect and analyze data. The data is then exported to the HDM-4 model. The department uses HDM-4 for annual and 3-year planning for road maintenance. The HDM-4 could also be utilized for emergency road maintenance activities. In contrast, the Road Infrastructure Department carries out traditional surveys using DPWT to collect flood or other damage data for emergency maintenance. Here the existing damage assessment form has been upgraded with detailed information for enhancing the maintenance system and proper accountability.
Hydro-climate extremes are critical in considering the possible adverse impacts of climate change and variability in Bhutan. It affects the total runoff volume, infrastructure, aquatic species, forests, hydropower generation, agriculture and more importantly, human lives. Therefore, it is imperative for water resources engineers and planners to consider hydro-climate extreme analyses in their long- and short-term planning. Climate impact research on the water sector in Bhutan is very important for developing a ‘climate-adaptive’ National IWRM Plan, River Basin Management Plan (RBMP) and National Irrigation Master Plan (NIMP). This study involves hydro-meteorological data projections based on the latest climate change scenarios (Fifth Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5)). The CMIP5 model data has been downscaled for Bhutan, and a basin-wide hydrological model (ArcSWAT) has been set up to evaluate future water availability in each basin.
The objective of this study is to assess the impacts of climate change by using a multi-modeling ensemble of four GCMs (i.e., the CMIP5 project database) for the historical period (1970-2010) and future period (2041-2095) on the hydrological regime of Bhutan’s rivers. The study conducted bias correction of GSM (CMIP5) data using a statistical downscaling model for river basin modeling and by setting up a hydrological model for updating the hydro-meteorological data projections based on the latest climate change scenarios. The climate data record for Bhutan is limited, e.g. the observed precipitation data is only available from 1995 to 2013 for a few stations. Due to these limitations, this study used Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE) data. The APHRODITE project created a grid to record daily precipitation with a high resolution 0.5° over the entire Asian domain.
For this study, 21 grid points covering the whole of Bhutan were identified. Daily rainfall and mean temperature data from 1976 to 2005 were extracted for all of these stations. These data were considered as observed historical data for this study. Bias correction using the empirical quantile mapping method was applied to climate input data provided by the GCM. Based on the correlation coefficient (R2) values between bias-corrected GCM and the APHRODITE monthly datasets for average temperature, most of the grids in Bhutan show a very good correlation (0.94) for the period 1976-2005. Similarly, the R2 values for precipitation for most of the grids also show good results.
The hydrological study analyzes multi-model precipitation extremes over Bhutan for historic (1979-2013) and future (2040–2099) climate scenarios by using the CMIP5 simulations data. The simulations of daily data from four global climate models (GCM) have been used. This study assumed a constant atmospheric CO2 concentration within SWAT throughout all model simulations. The effect of CO2 on plant growth and transpiration, and thus ET, can be significant or moderate for highly vegetated watersheds. Therefore, the decreases in stream flow and hydrologic components are assumed to be conservative estimates and would be higher than if modeled with the effects of CO2. Additionally, SWAT has a simplified groundwater algorithm where groundwater contributes to stream flow only if the water stored in the shallow or deep aquifer exceeds a specified water table height.
The SWAT model was simulated for the predicted future climate for 2055 to 2090s under both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 for BCC-CSm1-1 and CCSM4 GCMs. It was assumed that there is no land use change in the study area. It is also assumed that the wind, solar radiation and relative humidity remain the same as in the base period. Hydrological model results for stream flow at the outlet of each catchment have been aggregated to mean annual values, i.e. the average of each day of the year for every year. The glacier-covered areas of the model are treated as constant; from the simulation result, the average basin yield will increase from 5% to 56% during the period 2055-2095. This increase in yields results from an increase in both precipitation and temperature. Due to higher temperatures, the snowfall amount decreases significantly, shifting the permanent snowline to higher altitudes. Base flow during the dry season will increase for all of the future periods under both the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. With CCSM4, there will be a shift of flow pattern by one month. The peak will shift from August to July, which is due to the shifting rainfall pattern projected by CCSM4. There will be an increase in peak flow during July and August. The overall water availability changes are shown in the table below. correlation (0.74) for that period. The bias analysis shows that GCM data strongly overestimates the observed
data (APHRODITE) in the months April to October. From June to September, this bias crosses 10mm per day. After performing bias correction, future temperature and rainfall are projected using RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Future periods, including the 2030s (2011-2040), 2060s (2041-2070) and 2090s (2071-2100), are used for this stud
Vanuatu comprises over 80 islands, of which 68 are inhabited, and has a population of around 240,000 people. It has a combined land area of 14,760 km2 and a maritime exclusive economic zone of 680,000 km2. Like most small island nations, the coastal zone is the hub of economic activities in Vanuatu. The vast majority of the population is concentrated in the narrow strip of the coastal zone, as most islands are volcanic with a mountainous terrain in the interior of most islands. Nearly 75% of the population live in rural areas and engage in subsistence, rain-fed agriculture. While coastal fisheries contribute significantly to food security, many life-supporting coastal ecosystems are increasingly under stress from climate change and other human-induced impacts.
Vanuatu experiences severe tropical cyclones during the summer months of December to February; long dry spells associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cool phase March to November, and frequent earthquakes and seismic activity due to its location along the “Pacific Ring of Fire”. According to the Commonwealth Vulnerability Index, Vanuatu ranks as the world’s most vulnerable country due to its high exposure to natural disasters, scattered island geography, narrow economic base, inadequate communication and transportation networks, and limited capacity to cope with disasters, including climate change. In the Pacific region, the highest concentration of cyclones occurs in the area of Vanuatu; which experiences cyclonic activities most years.
The impacts of climate change have serious consequences on the coastal environment in Vanuatu. The bio-geophysical effects include coastal erosion, increased flooding, loss of coastal lowlands and wetlands and salinization of surface and groundwater. The loss and degradation of coastal wetlands impact on the livelihoods and nutrition of coastal dwellers that depend on the ecosystem services from intact and healthy mangroves, coral reefs and other coastal ecosystems. In addition, the effects of climate change on the socio-economy of the country include the risks to human life and health, loss of property and infrastructure, deterioration of agriculture, tourism, recreation and loss of livelihoods. These vulnerabilities threaten the way of life of coastal communities.
With respect to climate change governance, Vanuatu has responded positively to the climate change challenges and has established a National Advisory Board (NAB) with primary responsibility for coordinating climate change policies, programs and projects. The secretariat of NAB is the newly established PMU (Project Management Unit) based at the Vanuatu Meteorological and Geohazards Department (VMGD). To guide the implementation of effective and efficient adaptation efforts, Vanuatu has endorsed the 2012-2022 National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (NCCAS) and the National Adaption Program for Action (NAPA). These plans provide policy recommendations; sector specific adaptation plans and outlines a systematic, long-term approach for embedding climate change adaptation into core national and sector level activities. Vanuatu has also developed a National Integrated Coastal Management Framework (NICMF) and Implementation Strategy which outlines the institutional arrangements needed for management of coastal ecosystems. These national plans and strategies provide an important framework for the development of the project design.
Vanuatu is highly vulnerable to climate change related risks. The location, geology, and climate put Vanuatu at risk of disaster regardless of climate change. However, given the potential impacts of climate change the existing vulnerabilities will enhanced. These risks are summarized in Annex 1 of the main project document.
The current projections for climate change in Vanuatu in are outlined below. In relation to coastal and marine ecosystems that changes are projected to include:
- Increase in mean air temperature (0.4-1 degree Celsius by 2030),
- Increasing temperature of coastal waters with increasing likelihood of the potential for coral bleaching
- Increasing acidification of the coastal water (due to a decrease in ocean Aragonite saturation from 3.9 to 3.4 to 3.5(Ωar) by 2030)
- Increase in sea level (5-17cm by 2030),
- Increase in the intensity of the wet and dry seasons
- Increase in soil erosion due to changing rainfall events
- Less frequent, but more intense cyclones (increased wind speed and precipitation)
A ridge-to-Reef concept needs to adopt for the Vanuatu by integrating Coastal Community Climate Change Management Plans and integrated water resources management plan. In particular, the plan will focus on reducing threats to coastal and marine ecosystems, enhancing the resilience of ecosystems, disaster risk, water resources, coral reef, mangroves and seagrass beds and managing pressure on extraction of marine and coastal resources.
Natural disasters create significant impacts in the Pacific Islands: between 1950 and 2004 more than 200 disasters resulted in ovecrm_tongar 1700 fatalities and losses of USD 6.5 billion. Given their small populations and economies, such impacts represent significant shocks to Pacific Island countries. Tonga like the other fifty-one Small Island Developing States is highly susceptible to the impacts of climate change and disaster risks. Its susceptibility is principally due to its geographical, geological and socio-economic characteristics. Climate change and natural disasters pose serious adverse impacts on the environment, the people of Tonga and their livelihoods. Scientific findings revealed that these impacts would be exacerbated by future climate change. The Government of Tonga understands these significant detrimental impacts of climate change and disaster risks to sustainable development of the country hence considered these issues as high priorities in its National Strategic Planning Framework. With support from UNDP and Australian Government Pacific Adaptation Climate Change (PACC) project in Tonga assisted to increase the resilience of the water resources management sector and to enhance adaptive capacity of villages/communities and socio-economic activities to climate change and sea level rise. The paper doesn’t describes the PACC results rather water resources impacts due to climate changes.
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THE STUDIES ON CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION IN WEST AFRICA
This document is part of a series of studies produced by the African and Latin American Resilience to Climate Change (ARCC) project that address adaptation to climate change in West Africa. Within the ARCC West Africa studies, this document falls in the subseries on Climate Change and Water Resources in West Africa. ARCC has also developed a subseries on Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in the Sahel, Climate Change and Conflict in West Africa, and Climate Change in Mali.
THE SUBSERIES ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND WATER RESOURCES
Upon the request of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), ARCC undertook the West Africa water studies to increase understanding of the potential impacts of climate change on water resources in West Africa and to identify means to support adaptation to these changes. Other documents in the Climate Change and Water Resources in West Africa series include Transboundary River Basins, Mapping the Exposure of Socioeconomic and Natural Systems of West Africa to Coastal Climate Stressors, and Coastal Biophysical and Institutional Analysis.
The Ministry of Public Works and Transportation (MPWT) is increasingly focusing its attention on extreme climate events and their impact on Cambodia’s road network. Under the ADB-funded “Climate Resilience for Provincial Road Improvement Project” (CR-PRIP), MPWT aims to promote climate adaptation and environmentally friendly roads. The project will ensure the robustness, safety, pass-ability, and durability of roads by setting up design standards, safety measures, and emergency plans. The CR-PRIP is piloting an emergency management system in the Kampong Leaeng District by constructing an Emergency Operation Center (EOC) which will provide ferry ferries and inflatable boats for the safe evacuation of the population in affected areas; capacity building; and other rehabilitation activities (e.g. water supply, electricity) to enhance community resilience.
Evacuation planning is a common necessary mitigation factor for a range of risks, and planning should be proportionate to the level of risk. There are a number of cross-cutting issues in evacuation and safe place planning including community perception, acceptance, planning, and include logistics, security, local resilience, infrastructure and the role of local government. Consideration of these will help in understanding the wider impacts and interdependencies that surround an evacuation.
This document describes the community capacity, their perceptions and safety and evacuation needs to manage the disaster. A series of field surveys were conducted at the household level as well as focused group discussions at District and Commune level to identify disaster risks, damages and existing early warning systems. The survey also identified community needs to increase and support their capacity for managing flood risks; safe areas and any renovations or enhancements which are required; safety routes; and other measures required for safe evacuation. Based on the consultation, it has been recommended that six shelters with proper facilities be constructed as model shelters for evacuation during floods. The project will include the provision of water, electricity, land filling, etc to ensure the shelters can accommodate flood victims and provide basic support during an emergency. This report also covers characteristics of the project area (Kampong Leaeng District), the overall risk assessment for the area, historical flood damages and existing early warning systems for Cambodia.
Evacuation effectiveness can be improved by clear communication of risks and actions to take in the event of an emergency. To this end, the ‘Concept of Operation (CONOP) for Emergency Operation’ describes the plan for emergency communications and early warning dissemination and the Standard Operation Procedures (SOP) document describes the operation procedures and other advice for evacuation.
The Ministry of Public Works and Transportation (MPWT) has increasingly focused its attention on extreme climate events and their impact on Cambodia’s road network. Under the ADB-funded “Climate Resilience for Provincial Road Improvement Project” (CR-PRIP), MPWT aims to promote climate adaptation and environmentally friendly roads. The project will ensure the robustness, safety, pass-ability, and durability of roads by setting up design standards, safety measures, and emergency plans. The CR-PRIP is piloting an emergency management system in the Kampong Leaeng District by constructing an Emergency Operation Center by providing ferry boats, inflatable boats for evacuation of the population in affected areas, capacity building, and other rehabilitation activities (i.e. water supply, sanitation, electricity, etc.) to enhance community resilience.
There has been a constant realization that effective and holistic disaster risk mitigation requires greater multi-sectorial collaboration. For any disaster management organization should have written guidelines that defined precisely how operations were to be conducted. These guidelines, often called standard operating procedures or SOPs, are “organizational directives that establish a standard course of action.” In other words, SOPs are written guidelines that explain what is expected and required of disaster response personal in performing their jobs. A comprehensive set of SOPs defines in significant detail how the organization intends to operate.
The purpose of this document is to provide standard operation procedures for Emergency Information Center (EIC) at the MPWT and the Emergency Operation Center (EOC) at Kampong Leaeng District. This report also describes the operation procedures for the ferry boats and inflatable boats for emergency rescue activities and Drone operation during disaster period.
An EOC has planned to establish in Kampong Leaeng District for 24/7 Operation facilities. A Concept of Operations (CONOPS) document has been produced to guide the management, organization, responsibilities, and coordination necessary to provide for effective response and recovery from any emergency at community level. The SOP document is the follow up document of CONOPS and more an operational document and will be updated based on the needs or adjustment.
I wrote similar article right after 2010 floods. I had a chance to work in Pakistan to conduct some climate risk management assessment and training program for the Government officials on climate risk management during 2009-2010. Based on my assessment, major recommendation was to strengthening flood forecasting and warning system with longer lead time and community level awareness to interpret the flood forecasts for decision making! There has been some steps taken by Pakistan Met office (PMD) to strengthen the system but comparing to donor’s supports that perhaps nothings much has been done. Donor supports and NGOs are flooded with resources in Pakistan even though not much focused on flood early warning system! The BBC quoted “Pakistan has not experienced floods as devastating since 2010 – officials say 254 people have died in the past few days”. Though 2010 not so far, I wish they could write something more what lessons they learned from 2010 and how much they progress so far!
Advances in meteorological, hydrological and engineering sciences are fast generating a range of new methodologies for forecasting weather and flood events, including ensemble prediction systems (EPS) and new hydrological or hydrodynamic models (Fakhruddin, 2014; Drobot and Parker, 2007). However, many of these advances prediction system have not yet been incorporated into operational forecast systems and consequently, operational forecasts have not been integrated into decision making processes in order to reduce disaster risks. In a real world, it has been noticed that not all people noticed warning or able to understand the meaning of probabilistic forecasts and consider themselves at risk (Parker et al., 2009; Molinari and Handmerand, 2011). On the consequence no appropriate actions were taken to reduce damage (Fakhruddin, 2014, Babel et al. 2013).
PMD is in charge for issuing flood forecasts and warnings to the nation to help in saving lives and to reduce flood damages. For this purpose, PMD maintains a specialized Flood Forecasting Division (FFD) at Lahore. PMD issues pertinent information on rivers’ condition to local, provincial, and federal decision-makers and to general public. However, a flood forecast is only of value if it induces a response from the residents in the threatened area that lead to effective actions. Urban flood, Flash flood watches and warning, river and flood forecasts and warning, and water supply forecast and water management at major dams is the major hydrological services provided by PMD. The PMD able to provide accurate forecasts 24 hrs before but perhaps 24 hrs too little time to take appropriate actions for property damage but sufficient to save lives (Figure below represent the forecasts of PMD and its accuracy for the forecasts of 3rd September).
Figure 1: Forecasts accuracy for 2014 flood forecasts by PMD
Based on the research it has been proven (Fakhruddin 2014, Shrestha et al. 2014) that the lead time for flood forecasting for Indus Basin could increase 5-7 days with high persistent. In 2010 ECMWF 1-15 rainfall predicted more than 20 cm during those days (Figure 2). The rainfall forecast able to capture the 27-29 July events accurately. The figure 3 shows the 15-day forecasts of precipitation in north Pakistan for 27-29 July events (dashed). Multiple forecasts using ECMWF 51 set of ensembles were made to determine probabilities shown in figure 3.
Figure 3: The probabilities of flood in 1-15 days forecasts
The media has reported, in Punjab Province, Pakistan, 156 deaths have been attributed to heavy rains and floods and 75 people were dead in Pakistani-administered parts of Kashmir and the northern territory of Gilgit-Baltistan, said Zaheer Abbas, an official with the National Disaster Management Authority. At least 2,100 villages have been badly affected by the flooding. Thousands of villagers in central parts of Punjab are depending on boats and rescue operations to save their lives and livestock. The floodwaters were moving downstream and were expected to reach the southern part of Sindh Province and the southwestern part of Baluchistan Province by the end of the week, officials said.
This clearly states the lack of communication to receive the warning to the affected people, interpret or internalize the information for decision making and response. As mentioned Fakhruddin (2012), early warning systems alone do not prevent hazards turning into disasters. Early action is essential in order to mitigate potential damage (World Disaster Report, 2009). Early warning and early action together can save thousands of lives and livelihoods; reduce vulnerability and strengthen resilience. Nevertheless without lead time to react an early warning is almost ineffective. (Parker et al., 2005). For taking a good decision, the capacity of generation of long lead flood forecasts with an acceptable degree is essential (Alan et.al., 2002). Therefore A breakdown in any one of these elements of early warning can cause warning messages to fail to reach and motivate their intended recipients. It’s clear that early warning is not helpful unless its reach to the people who need to act. To response to the early warning the information need to understand and internalized by the people. Thus an interpretation and translation of the science information is essential. People do not immediately respond to early warnings because people worldwide first “search” for additional information to “confirm” that they are really at risk. This searching happens despite the technology used to give warnings. Searching is a social phenomenon. It involves talking things over with others and seeking to hear the same warning multiple times from different sources. Warned people turn to friends, relatives, and strangers to determine if they agree that risk is present and if protective actions are warranted. This process, constructing new perceptions of risk out of existing perceptions of safety adds time before protective actions are taken- it is fundamental to all human beings worldwide, and it is difficult to change. Early public warnings work best when they are under mandate from a government that is trusted as they can facilitate the process and speed it along (World Bank and UN, 2010). Ignoring these basic human warning elements may continue to cost lives. A decision support system incorporating all these users need could enables peoples to visualize the possible scenarios with probabilities of risk to reduce their vulnerabilities.
The Ministry of Public Works and Transportation (MPWT) has increasingly focused its attention on extreme climate events and their impact on Cambodia’s road network. Under the ADB-funded “Climate Resilience for Provincial Road Improvement Project” (CR-PRIP), MPWT aims to promote climate adaptation and environmentally friendly roads. The project will ensure the robustness, safety, pass-ability, and durability of roads by setting up design standards, safety measures, and emergency plans. The CR-PRIP is piloting an emergency management system in the Kampong Leng District by constructing an Emergency Operation Center, provide ferry boats for evaluation of the affected areas, capacity building, and other rehabilitation activities (i.e. water supply, sanitation, electricity, etc.) to enhance community resilience.
This document provides guidelines for the establishment of an Emergency Operation Center (EOC) and its overall operation system. The Concept of Operation (CONOPS) outlines an organized and unified capability for a timely, coordinated response by the MPWT and Kampong Leaeng District Center to natural disasters. It establishes conceptual guidance for assessing and monitoring a developing threat, notifying appropriate provincial and local agencies of the nature of the threat, and the requisite advisory and technical resources to facilitate coordination during the crisis and consequence management activities. Actions will be necessary to continually refine the mission, capabilities, and resources of other supporting departments and agencies; and the actions each agency or department must perform during each phase of the response, to include crisis management and consequence management actions.
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