Integrated Urban Drainage System- Lessons Learned
Over the last decades, climate change and the constant growth of cities and urban areas have had a considerable impact on urban drainage system. With fast increase in population and infrastructures, the infiltration capability of rainwater reduced subsequently making the urban areas more vulnerable to urban flood in the presence of heavy rain events. Climate change have increased the vulnerability more by changing/increasing the frequency, intensity, and duration of rain events. All these circumstances have caused considerable increments in both wastewater and rainwater within cities, thereby increasing the risk of combined sewer overflow and flood events. This could be a major catastrophe for water quality as well as overall water resources manage. The urban water cycle is composed by diﬀerent stages that include collection, transport, puriﬁcation and conditioning for human needs, distribution, consumption, wastewater collection, depuration, and ﬁnally reuse or disposal in the natural environment. The lessons learned paper focuses an integrated model for real time control design and its application to consider the uncertainty of climate change and extreme weather events and strength and weakness of existing real time control model for urban drainage models.